mercredi 4 avril 2007

"globalwarming awareness2007"

This Will Probably Be My Last Post About Global warming Awareness 2007 of the Seo World Championship Contest.

About Global warming Awareness 2007
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Global Warming Awareness 2007

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samedi 31 mars 2007

World View of GlobalWarming awareness2007 in Alaska

globalwarming awareness2007

Global Warming Awareness 2007 in Alaska

The Arctic is thawing very rapidly, documented by new reports from scientists and arctic natives. The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment was released in late 2004, and shows changes from the ice at the North Pole to animals and human settlements. More recent reports from Greenland show outlet glaciers moving meters per hour and rapidly thinning. The Arctic Ocean ice cap is shrinking in summer to the smallest it has ever been in modern measurements, and even winter cold has not been refreezing it as extensively as before. That sea ice is habitat for the polar bear. Declines in bear nutrition, birth weight and survival have moved the U.S. government (urged by three environmental groups) to propose the bear be named a species threatened with extinction. (posted regarding the seo world championship GLOBAL WARMING AWARENESS 2007)

Below and on linking pages, are reports on the latest science and warming effects across Alaska and parts of the Arctic. For more on Arctic natives, please see the Arctic page. Also see Glaciers for more on Greenland and Alaska glaciers.

Pushing the Boundaries of Life: Alaska
globalwarming awareness2007

The listing of polar bears as threatened under the U.S. endangered species act will name global warming awareness 2007 as the main threat, a first. The reduction of the permanent Arctic sea ice by 14 percent since the 1970s is causing not only feeding and breeding difficulties, but also drownings and apparent cannibalism among bears. The listing should be official by the end of 2007. For more information, see Center for Biological Diversity. Scientists are just beginning to see the effects of climate change on other Arctic wildlife. Caribou give birth at specific times and locations, making them susceptible to changes in weather and vegetation. Studies show that the tundra is now blooming slightly earlier and that it is affected by drier summers and heavier winter snow.
globalwarming awareness2007

Biologist Gus Shaver at one of his experimental plots at Toolik Lake, Alaska, monitors increased birch growth due to experimental fertilization and global warming. Shaver says the results of his experiment suggest that warming eventually will promote the growth of birch at the expense of sedges, forbs, and other plants that caribou and other wildlife favor as food sources. During an initial 15-year study (1981-95, which included the warmest decade on record) the sedge Eriophorum decreased by 30 percent while birch biomass increased, even in control plots. In 2002 Shaver reports the growth of birch has changed the ecology of tundra in some plots by covering and killing moss with large amount of leaf litter.

The great loss of ice from the Arctic, which includes not only the polar sea ice cover but also thawing glaciers and tundra permafrost, has other major implications. One of the most important is that dark open water and tundra absorb much more solar heat than white ice and snow. This is a "feedback loop" that will make changes happen faster.

Another large effect in the Arctic is a freshening of the Arctic Ocean. In late 2002, geochemist Bruce Peterson of the Marine Biological Lab in Woods Hole, MA, and his collaborators in the US and Russia, showed that the major rivers of Siberia and Eurasia are discharging much more water now than in the 1930s. This not only meets the predictions of an effect of climate change, but indicates the scale of change affecting the Arctic.

lundi 19 mars 2007

An Arctic Alert on Global Warming

from the November 09, 2004 edition

Globa lwarming Awareness 2007globalwarming awareness2007
AT RISK IN ALASKA: Melting of ice shelves and glaciers, such as in the Chugach Mountains, could be driven by temperatures that are rising faster in the Arctic than globally.

By Peter N. Spotts Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor

Global warming is heating the Arctic at a rapid pace - with impacts that could range from the disappearance of polar bears' summer habitat by the century's end to a damaging rise in sea levels worldwide.

That assessment, released Monday by a group of international climate experts, amounts to one of the most urgent warnings on climate change to date, and could put new pressure on the US and other nations to curb fossil-fuel emissions.

This comes at a time of growing concern about the effects of global warming, which scientists generally agree is increasingly driven by rising carbon-dioxide levels in the atmosphere from human industrial activity and changing land-use patterns.

Monday's report called for "strong near-term action" to reduce output of gases that, when they rise into the atmosphere, trap heat in what is called the greenhouse effect.

The trends cited in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment are stark:

Rapid melting of Arctic glaciers, including the vast sheet of ice that covers Greenland. The sheet locks up enough fresh water to raise sea levels by as much as 27 feet over the course of several centuries. The group calculates that during this century, Greenland temperatures are likely to exceed the threshold for triggering the long-term meltdown of the island's ice sheet.

Arctic temperatures rising up to twice as fast as the global average. Over the past 50 years, average winter temperatures in Alaska, western Canada, and eastern Russia have risen as much as 7 degrees F. Over the next century, temperatures are projected to rise by up to 13 degrees F.

• A dramatic reduction in the extent of the summer ice pack in the Arctic Ocean. Late-summer ice coverage already has declined by as much as 20 percent over the past three decades. The summer ice pack is projected to shrink by another 10 to 50 percent by the end of the century. Some climate models show the summer ice vanishing by 2040.

Either change could accelerate warming by allowing the ocean to absorb solar heat. The change could threaten species such as polar bears and some seals with extinction. Researchers also worry that an influx of fresh water into the North Atlantic could disrupt large-scale ocean currents worldwide, altering weather patterns and the locations where nutrients rise from the depths to support regional fisheries.

"The Arctic is warming now, at a faster rate than the rest of the planet. It's affecting people, and its effects are global," says Robert Corell, a senior fellow with the American Meteorological Society who chaired the team that pulled the study together.

Assembled over 4-1/2 years, the study came at the request of the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee. The council includes top-level government officials from the United States, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden, as well as from six organizations representing indigenous groups who live in the Arctic region. Some 300 scientists from the world's top polar-research centers were involved.

The report details current and projected changes that could affect everything from shipping, agriculture, and the livelihoods of indigenous people to breeding grounds for migratory birds, many of which are considered endangered. One aspect on which researchers are keeping their eye: the release of methane and carbon dioxide as permafrost thaws and tundra decomposes. Even if the advance of forests to higher latitudes soaks up some of this released CO2, this still leaves methane - a much more potent greenhouse gas - free to enter the atmosphere.

Monday, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change issued its own study of global warming's effect on the US. The report largely focuses on warming's impact on ecology and biodiversity.

The Arctic study also comes at a time of growing momentum internationally to address the climate change.

Last week, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a bill passed by parliament that ratified the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. His signature was the final act required for the pact to take effect. The accord requires industrial countries party to the pact to reduce their CO2 emissions by an average of 5.5 percent between 2008 and 2012. While climate researchers agree that the pact's target will have little effect on atmospheric CO2, the agreement establishes mechanisms for achieving emissions targets, such as emissions trading, that may be a foundation for future agreements.

Perhaps just as important, supporters say, once the protocol takes force, it requires countries to begin looking ahead to follow-on agreements that would have a more significant impact on emissions.

In a statement released following Mr. Putin's signing, Eileen Claussen of the Pew Center on Climate Change noted that talks are set to begin next year on a post-Kyoto agreement. Now that the protocol is in effect, it "sets the stage for a new round of negotiations that can produce a broader, more durable agreement," she said. "New approaches will be needed to better engage the United States and major developing countries in the ... effort."

The new report is likely to add to pressure building on the Bush administration to take firmer actions to curb America's carbon emissions. British Prime Minister Tony Blair has signaled that climate will be one of his top priorities when he takes over as president of the G-8 group of industrial nations in January.

In a recent interview with Reuters, David King, Britain's chief science adviser, noted that during the summer, White House policymakers "fully accepted the scientific arguments for climate change and are keen to play a leadership role. So far we've been focusing on Russia. Clearly now the spotlight is going to move."

President Bush withdrew the US from the Kyoto treaty in 2001. The administration has said it views global warming as a serious threat, but that the Kyoto approach puts too much of the carbon-reduction burden on the US and other industrial countries, putting millions of jobs at risk.

The administration is spending several billion dollars each year to research technologies such as clean-burning coal and hydrogen-fueled cars. And while Bush hasn't signed on to the Kyoto goals, the administration talks of reducing the economy's "carbon-intensity" - the amount of carbon needed to produce each dollar of economic output.

"It is of importance to the president that we continue to make progress" on climate change, EPA administrator Mike Leavitt told the Associated Press Friday.

Global Warming Awareness 2007

vendredi 16 mars 2007


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mercredi 14 mars 2007

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Current Score for Today March 29
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Current Score for Today
March 14 2007

vendredi 23 février 2007


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Hey guys!

This is a first for me, and i know i don't stand a chance to win this Global Warming Awareness 2007 contest, but just for fun and see were it's gone a take me.

What is "global warming awareness 2007" about ?

All of you peoples knows that it is about the :


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But in fact, i beleive that it is about accuracy and precision about global warming awareness 2007

And what exactly is global warming awareness 2007?

Global Warming, in brief, is the warming of the Earth. Our planet, Earth, is continually being warmed by different sources (for e.g. gases in the atmosphere, ultraviolet rays from the sun etc.) This total process of warming of the earth due to different reasons is called the Global Warming. But why do we need to be so cautious of it? The truth is that certain human activities are affecting this process in a negative way. Industries and modern factories release gases in a large amount which enter the atmosphere and stay there. They have the ability to absorb heat and also to send it back towards earth. In this way, the planet's overall temperature starts increasing. This in turn results in more diseases and more severe natural disasters thus causing thousands of deaths.

globalwarming awareness2007
It is certainly one of THE biggest problems facing the scientists today. To find a solution to this massive problem is not easy but one thing's for sure we will have to work together in a collective way if we are to escape from the dangers of over-warming of earth. Here on this site we take a look at this problem from the eyes of a normal average person. We don't know much about this crucial problem ... do we? That's one of the basic reasons for the creation of this web site .... To spread awareness of global warming 2007, this vital issue literally threatening life on this planet!
We invite you to take a look at the information we've collected for you because you alone can make a huge difference! You can start navigating from the links given on the right. We have all you need to know about global warming awareness 2007. Feel free to surf around and take a look!
Global Warming Awareness 2007


The term 'Global Warming' refers to an expected rise in global temperature due to certain human activities. As we know, It is the process which is continuously warming the earth. But why are we so concerned about it? The answer is that our planet's overall temperature in almost every region has been on a rise for over a century now. Changes in climate and temperature have been recorded during the past century. The reason behind this increase in temperature is the continued emission of Carbon Dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which are capable of trapping heat. The most well-known greenhouse gas is Carbon Dioxide. CO2 is transparent to light but absorbs heat. Scientists have estimated the carbon dioxide concentration in our atmosphere has increased about 15% during the past century as a result of fossil fuels, increase in population and deforestation. What is the consequence? The result is that the layer of CO2 so formed over earth absorbs the sun's heat and thus prevents its escape thus causing the green house effect.

(for Global Warming Awareness 2007 contest:source=the global warming awareness 2007 web site)

What is Green House Effect?

This mechanism by which carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere is referred to as the "greenhouse effect". Carbon dioxide, along with other greenhouse gases, allows the shorter wavelengths of energy radiating from the sun to pass through to the earth's surface and heat it. However, the hot earth emits only the longer wavelengths of energy (infra-red radiation) back into space. The CO2 molecules in the atmosphere absorb these infra-red radiations before it escapes into space and thus a certain amount of heat is retained in earth's atmosphere, providing an additional source of energy (see figure). This heat energy adds to the already passed through energy from the sun and causes a warming effect on the earth. This in turn has many effects. For Example, it increases the average temperature of parts of earth, due to excessive heat the polar ice caps start to melt away causing a rise in sea levels and flooding of many coastal areas of the world. In short, the effects are truly devastating. It is believed that without water vapor, CO2, and other greenhouse gases in the air, the planet's average temperature would be about 34°C cooler on average than it is today.
Global Warming Awareness 2007

globalwarming awareness2007

  • Global Warming Awareness 2007

    GLOBALWARMING AWARENESS2007 Global Warming Awareness 2007
    The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the
    Kyoto Protocol

    Conditions for 55 parties and at least 55% CO2
    entry into force 1990 emissions by UNFCCC
    Annex I parties.
    Parties 169 countries and other
    governmental entities
    (as of December 2006)
    always keep in mind that this is about global warming awareness 2007
    The Kyoto Protocol is an agreement made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Countries that ratify this protocol commit to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases.
    The Kyoto Protocol now covers more than 160 countries globally and over 55% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
    At its heart, Kyoto establishes the following principles:
    Kyoto is underwritten by governments and is governed by global legislation enacted under the UN’s aegis
    Governments are separated into two general categories: developed countries, referred to as Annex 1 countries (who have accepted GHG emission reduction obligations and must submit an annual greenhouse gas inventory); and developing countries, referred to as Non-Annex 1 countries (who have no GHG emission reduction obligations but may participate in the Clean Development Mechanism).

    Any Annex 1 country that fails to meet its Kyoto target will be penalized by having to submit 1.3 emission allowances in a second commitment period for every ton of GHG emissions they exceed their cap in the first commitment period (i.e, 2008-2012).
    By 2008-2012, Annex 1 countries have to reduce their GHG emissions by an average of 5% below their 1990 levels (for many countries, such as the EU member states, this corresponds to some 15% below their expected GHG emissions in 2008). While the average emissions reduction is 5%, national targets range from 8% reductions for the European Union to a 10% emissions increase for Iceland. Reduction targets expire in 2013.
    Kyoto includes "flexible mechanisms" which allow Annex 1 economies to meet their GHG targets by purchasing GHG emission reductions from elsewhere. These can be bought either from financial exchanges (such as the new EU Emissions Trading Scheme) or from projects which reduce emissions in non-Annex 1 economies under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), or in other Annex-1 countries under the JI.
    Only CDM Executive Board-accredited Certified Emission Reductions (CER) can be bought and sold in this manner. Under the aegis of the UN, Kyoto established this Bonn-based Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board to assess and approve projects (“CDM Projects”) in Non-Annex 1 economies prior to awarding CERs. (A similar scheme called “Joint Implementation” or “JI” applies in transitional economies mainly covering the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe).

    What this means in practice is that Non-Annex 1 economies have no GHG emission restrictions, but when a GHG emission reduction project (a “GHG Project”) is implemented in these countries, that GHG Project will receive Carbon Credit which can be sold to Annex 1 buyers.
    The Kyoto linking mechanisms are in place for two main reasons:
    the cost of complying with Kyoto is prohibitive [citation needed] for many [citation needed] Annex 1 countries (especially those countries, such as Japan or the Netherlands for example, with highly efficient, low GHG polluting industries, and high prevailing environmental standards). Kyoto therefore allows these countries to purchase Carbon Credits instead of reducing GHG emissions domestically; and,
    this is seen as a means of encouraging Non-Annex 1 developing economies to reduce GHG emissions since doing so is now economically viable because of the sale of Carbon Credits.
    All the Annex 1 economies have established Designated National Authorities to manage their GHG portfolios under Kyoto. Countries including Japan, Canada, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Spain and many more, are actively promoting government carbon funds and supporting multilateral carbon funds intent on purchasing Carbon Credits from Non-Annex 1 countries. These government organizations are working closely with their major utility, energy, oil & gas and chemicals conglomerates to try to acquire as many GHG Certificates as cheaply as possible.

    Virtually all of the Non-Annex 1 countries have also set up their own Designated National Authorities to manage the Kyoto process (and specifically the “CDM process” whereby these host government entities decide which GHG Projects they do or do not wish to support for accreditation by the CDM Executive Board).
    The objectives of these opposing groups are quite different. Annex 1 entities want Carbon Credits as cheaply as possible, whilst Non-Annex 1 entities want to maximise the value of Carbon Credits generated from their domestic GHG Projects.
    (for Globa lWarming Awareness 2007 contest: source=wikipedia)

  • Global Warming Awareness 2007
  • Global Warming Awareness 2007 Wiki

    Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. Models referenced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predict that global temperatures are likely to increase by 1.1 ° to 6.4 °C (2.0 ° to 11.5 °F) between 1990 and 2100.[1] The uncertainty in this range results from two factors: differing future greenhouse gas emission scenarios, and uncertainties regarding climate sensitivity. Global Warming Awareness 2007

    Global average near-surface atmospheric temperature rose 0.74 ± 0.18 °Celsius (1.3 ± 0.32 °Fahrenheit) in the last century. The prevailing scientific opinion on climate change is that "most of the observed increase in globally averaged temperatures since the mid-20th century is very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations,"[1] which leads to warming of the surface and lower atmosphere by increasing the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases are released by activities such as the burning of fossil fuels, land clearing, and agriculture. Other phenomena such as solar variation and volcanoes have had smaller but non-negligible effects on global mean temperature since 1950.[2] A few scientists disagree about the primary causes of the observed warming. Global Warming Awareness 2007

    An increase in global temperatures can in turn cause other changes, including a rising sea level and changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation. These changes may increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, heat waves, hurricanes, and tornados. Other consequences include higher or lower agricultural yields, glacier retreat, reduced summer streamflows, species extinctions and increases in the ranges of disease vectors. Warming is expected to affect the number and magnitude of these events; however, it is difficult to connect particular events to global warming awareness 2007. Although most studies focus on the period up to 2100, even if no further greenhouse gases were released after this date,global warming (and sea level) would be expected to continue to rise for more than a millennium, since CO2 has a long average atmospheric lifetime. Global Warming Awareness 2007

    Remaining scientific uncertainties include the exact degree of climate change expected in the future, and especially how changes will vary from region to region across the globe. A hotly contested political and public debate also has yet to be resolved, regarding whether anything should be done, and what could be cost-effectively done to reduce or reverse future warming, or to deal with the expected consequences. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol aimed at combating globalwarming. (See: List of Kyoto Protocol signatories.) Global Warming Awareness 2007



    The term globalwarming is a specific example of the broader term climate change, which can also refer to global cooling. In principle, globalwarming is neutral as to the period or causes, but in both common and scientific usage the term generally refers to recent warming and implies a human influence.[3] The UNFCCC uses the term "climate change" for human-caused change, and "climate variability" for other changes.[4] Some organizations use the term "anthropogenic climate change" for human-induced changes.Global Warming Awareness 2007

    History of warming

    Relative to the period 1860–1900, global temperatures on both land and sea have increased by 0.75 °C (1.4 °F), according to the instrumental temperature record; the urban heat island is not believed to be significant. Since 1979, land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as ocean temperatures (0.25 °C/decade against 0.13 °C/decade) (Smith, 2005). Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0.12 and 0.22 °C (0.22 and 0.4 °F) per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. Over the one or two thousand years before 1850, temperature is believed to have been relatively stable, with possibly regional fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period or the Little Ice Age.
    Based on estimates by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2005 was the warmest year since reliable, widespread instrumental measurements became available in the late 1800s, exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree. Estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the UK Climatic Research Unit concluded that 2005 was the second warmest year, behind 1998.[5][6]
    The attribution of recent climate change is clearest for the most recent period of the last 50 years, for which the most detailed data are available.
    Note that the anthropogenic emissions of other pollutants—notably sulphate aerosols—exert a cooling effect; this partially accounts for the plateau/cooling seen in the temperature record in the middle of the twentieth century,[7] though this may also be due to intervening natural cycles.Global Warming Awareness 2007

  • Global Warming Awareness 2007
  • Adaptation to Global Warming

    Adaptation to globalwarming covers all actions aimed at reducing the negative effects of global warming. This in contrast to Mitigation of global warming which involves actions meant to avoid or delay the occurrence of climate change due to global warming.

    Effects of globalwarming
    Projected climate changes due to global warming have the potential to lead to future large-scale and possibly irreversible changes in climate resulting in impacts at continental and global scales.

    Examples of projected climate changes include:
    significant slowing of the ocean circulation that transports warm water to the North Atlantic,
    large reductions in the Greenland and West Antarctic Ice Sheets,
    accelerated globalwarming due to carbon cycle feedbacks in the terrestrial biosphere, and
    releases of terrestrial carbon from permafrost regions and methane from hydrates in coastal sediments.

    The likelihood of many of these changes is not well-known, however, the probability of one or more of these changes occurring is likely to increase with the rate, magnitude, and duration of climate change.

    Most of the consequences of global warming would result from one of three physical changes: sea level rise, higher local temperatures, and changes in rainfall patterns. Sea level is generally expected to rise 50-200 cm in the next century (Dean et al. 1987); such a rise would inundate 7,000 square miles of dry land in the United States (an area the size of Massachusetts) and a similar amount of coastal wetlands; erode recreational beaches 100-200 meters, exacerbate coastal flooding; and increase the salinity of aquifers and estuaries (Titus 1989).
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    The argument for adaptation
    The argument for adaptation is that even if all emissions were stopped today, the greenhouse gases which are already in the air would be enough to cause some climate change. CO2 in particular is long-lived atmospheric gas, and it would take a long time for CO2 levels to stabilize to pre-industrial levels, due to the limited rate at which the earth absorbs CO2, as is highlighted in studies of the carbon flux. Total CO2 emissions are likely to rise in the coming decades. Climate change is already happening: glaciers are melting, sea levels have risen, and hurricanes are getting more intense. With rising CO2 levels, climate change is likely to get worse before it gets better. For these reasons, the world must prepare and adapt to the effects of globalwarming.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    National Academy of Sciences
    One prominent attempt to broach adaptation was a 1991 report by the National Academy of Sciences, “Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming.” The National Academy report cautioned that agricultural adaptation will be essential in a greenhouse world.

    IPCC Working Group II
    IPCC Working Group II argues that mitigation and adaptation should be complementary components of a response strategy to global warming. Their report makes the following observations:
    1. Adaptation is a necessary strategy at all scales to complement climate change mitigation efforts.
    2. Those with the least resources have the least capacity to adapt and are the most vulnerable
    3. Adaptation, sustainable development, and enhancement of equity can be mutually reinforcing
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Adaptation is a necessary strategy
    Adaptation is a necessary strategy at all scales to complement climate change mitigation efforts because we cannot be sure that all climate change can be mitigated. And indeed the odds are quite high that in the long run more warming is inevitable, given the geologic evidence of the past's most similar glacial / interglacial cycle which happened about 400,000 years ago. That similarity being determined by degree of the elliptic shape of the earth's orbit and how close the Sun is when the most land, that is the northern hemisphere, is being warmed by it.

    Adaptation has the potential to reduce adverse impacts of climate change and to enhance beneficial impacts, but will incur costs and will not prevent all damages. Extremes, variability, and rates of change are all key features in addressing vulnerability and adaptation to climate change, not simply changes in average climate conditions. [citation needed]
    Human and natural systems will to some degree adapt autonomously to climate change. [citation needed] Planned adaptation can supplement autonomous adaptation, though there are more options and greater possibility for offering incentives in the case of adaptation of human systems than in the case of adaptation to protect natural systems.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Poorer nations
    The ability of human systems to adapt to and cope with climate change depends on such factors as wealth, technology, education, information, skills, infrastructure, access to resources, and management capabilities. There is potential for developed and developing countries to enhance and/or acquire adaptive capabilities. Populations and communities are highly variable in their endowments with these attributes, and the developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, are generally poorest in this regard. As a result, they have lesser capacity to adapt and are more vulnerable to climate change damages, just as they are more vulnerable to other stresses. This condition is most extreme among the poorest people.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Mutual reinforcement
    Many communities and regions that are vulnerable to climate change are also under pressure from forces such as population growth, resource depletion, and poverty. Policies that lessen pressures on resources, improve management of environmental risks, and increase the welfare of the poorest members of society can simultaneously advance sustainable development and equity, enhance adaptive capacity, and reduce vulnerability to climate and other stresses. Inclusion of climatic risks in the design and implementation of national and international development initiatives can promote equity and development that is more sustainable and that reduces vulnerability to climate change.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    National Center for Policy Analysis
    A study by the National Center for Policy Analysis argues that adaptation is more cost-effective than mitigation. Their report makes the following observations:

    1. By 2085, the contribution of (unmitigated) warming to the above listed problems is generally smaller than other factors unrelated to climate change.

    2.More important, these risks would be lowered much more effectively and economically by reducing current and future vulnerability to climate change rather than through its mitigation.

    3. Finally, adaptation would help developing countries cope with major problems now, and through 2085 and beyond, whereas generations would pass before anything less than draconian mitigation would have a discernible effect.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    The Kyoto Protocol
    Under the Kyoto Protocol, the United States would have agreed to cut greenhouse emissions by about 400 million tons per year by 2012; in the same period, Chinese emissions are expected to rise almost 2 billion tons annually[citation needed]. In 2003 the world net output of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, the chief greenhouse gas, was about 25 billion metric tons annually.

    Even with the Kyoto Protocol, global emissions by 2015 will rise to perhaps 9 billion tons[citation needed], 50 percent higher than today's level. Such nearly-inevitable carbon buildup ought to tell us is that if greenhouse theory is right, a warming world is now unavoidable: at least through the next generation, until a renewable-fuels energy economy can be created.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Historic adaptation
    Some of those who argue for adaptation to globalwarming awareness2007 do so with the perspective that human civilization has proven to be highly adaptable to climate change in the past and therefore will likely be able to adapt to climate change in the future.
    The counterargument to this perspective is that the costs of adaptation are much higher than in the past due to the greater investment in urban and industrial infrastructure.

    In the past, cities could be relocated largely by having the populace pack up their possessions on their backs, on pack animals or wagons and relocate. [citation needed] Modern cities the size of Bristol or Liverpool cannot be relocated easily even with the use of truck, air and rail transport.
    The damage suffered by New Orleans by hurricane Katrina provides some perspective as to the potential damage that can be caused by a rise in sea level. Far more technology and resources are available today. Our organizational and communication systems are far more advanced than than were available in the time of the Romans. At the same time, there is far more infrastructure to protect or relocate. The relative costs of relocation could be higher.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Adaptation versus Mitigation
    Some orthodox environmentalists consider mere mention of adaptation to be offensive because they believe that mitigation should be the critical focus and that adaptation is a "red herring" that distracts from the focus on mitigation. Others resist discussion of adaptation because they believe that the concept has been so abused by those who seek to avoid making any changes to the so called "fossil fuel society" that to speak of adaptation at all runs the risk of having their words dismissed by allies and distorted by opponents. [citation needed] There's also the deeper philosophical issue that a focus on adaptation can easily undercut more productive -- but more difficult -- efforts to halt and reverse disastrous changes.

    Adaptation measures directly benefit the country investing in them, this further disadvantages poorer nations, possibly undermining international collaborative mitigation efforts.

    On the other hand, those who argue for adaptation over mitigation assert that the requirement of holding global greenhouse gas emissions constant is unrealistic, especially when one takes account of the growth rate of developing countries such as India and China. At their stage of economic development, increasing standards of living and economic activities directly translate into near proportionate increase in greenhouse gass emission. This is not the case with developed countries where emissions level tend to be constant. Those who advocate adaptation over mitigation are not hostile to energy saving technologies or even energy taxes, which are economically efficient. [citation needed] However, they are generally hostile to the idea of capping greenhouse emissions. They argue that, for such a policy to have any meaningful effect, the caps have to be applied to emerging developing countries. Because of their stage of economic development, caps on energy consumption mean caps on their living standard and economic growth, which would reduce the benefits caused by growth in living standards such as reduced infant mortality, increased life expectancy, and better medical care. Moreover, half hearted measures of mitigation and the resulting stunting of economic growth would impact these developing countries' ability to adapt to the effect of global warming. Hence, they argue that any meaningful mitigation policy is politically, economically and morally impractical. Academic support for this argument usually comes from the field of economics. [citation needed] In general, the advocates of this position accept that human activities are the likely cause of global warming and support such policies as energy taxes, while at the same time, oppose emission caps often supported by the green movement. (See Copenhagen Consensus as an example)
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Criteria for assessing responses
    James Titus identifies the following criteria that policy makers should use in assessing responses to globalwarming:

    Economic Efficiency: Will the initiative yield benefits substantially greater than if the resources were applied elsewhere?

    Flexibility: Is the strategy reasonable for the entire range of possible changes in temperatures, precipita- tion, and sea level?

    Urgency: Would the strategy be successful if implementation were delayed ten or twenty years?
    Low Cost: Does the strategy require minimal resources?

    Equity: Does the strategy unfairly benefit some at the expense of other regions, generations, or economic classes?

    Institutional feasibility: Is the strategy acceptable to the public? Can it be implemented with existing institutions under existing laws?

    Unique or Critical Resources: Would the strategy decrease the risk of losing unique environmental or cultural resources?

    Health and Safety: Would the proposed strategy increase or decrease the risk of disease or injury?

    Consistency: Does the policy support other national state, community, or private goals?
    Private v. Public Sector: Does the strategy minimize governmental interference with decisions best made by the private sector?
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Adaptation mechanisms
    Scheraga and Grambsch [11] identify 9 fundamental principles to be considered when designing adaptation policy.

    1.The effects of climate change vary by region.
    2.The effects of climate change may vary across demographic groups.
    3.Climate change poses both risks and opportunities.
    The effects of climate change must be considered in the context of multiple stressors and factors, which may be as important to the design of adaptive responses as the sensitivity of the change.
    5.Adaptation comes at a cost.
    6.Adaptive responses vary in effectiveness, as demonstrated by current efforts to cope with climate variability.
    7.The systemic nature of climate impacts complicates the development of adaptation policy.
    8.Maladaptation can result in negative effects that are as serious as the climate-induced effects that are being avoided.
    9.Many opportunities for adaptation make sense whether or not the effects of climate change are realized.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)

    Methods of adaptation
    Examples of adaptation include defending against rising sea levels through better flood defences, and changing patterns of land use (avoiding more vulnerable areas for housing).

    Adapting to changes in weather

    Water management

    Agricultural production
    Agriculture of any kind is strongly influenced by the availability of water. Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation, runoff, and soil moisture storage. Changes in total seasonal precipitation or in its pattern of variability are both important. The occurrence of moisture stress during flowering, pollination, and grain-filling is harmful to most crops and particularly so to corn, soybeans, and wheat. Increased evaporation from the soil and accelerated transpiration in the plants themselves will cause moisture stress; as a result there will be a need to develop crop varieties with greater drought tolerance.

    The demand for water for irrigation is projected to rise in a warmer climate, bringing increased competition between agriculture--already the largest consumer of water resources in semiarid regions--and urban as well as industrial users. Falling water tables and the resulting increase in the energy needed to pump water will make the practice of irrigation more expensive, particularly when with drier conditions more water will be required per acre.
    (GlobalWarming Awareness2007)
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